クロロホルム 比重。 比重の計算

クロロホルム

クロロホルム 比重

33 1 水への溶解度:微溶(1. 様々なものを適度に溶かすので使いやすい反面、沸点が低く発がん性が疑われており、特定化学物質に指定されるなど法規制は厳しいです。 分液操作で下層にくる数少ない有機溶媒です。 49 1 水への溶解度:難溶(0. こちらもいろんなものをよく溶かすので使いやすいが、近年ジクロロメタンと同様に特定化学物質に指定されました。 89 1 水への溶解度:混和する 1 沸点が適度で除去しやすく、多くの有機化合物をよく溶かします。 反応溶媒として非常によく使われます。 水と混和しますが、飽和食塩水などとは2層に分かれるので分液も可能です。 市販品には過酸化物の生成を防ぐため、安定剤としてBHTがごく少量含まれている場合が多いので、大量に使用した場合はBHTの残存に注意しましょう。 72 1 水への溶解度:可溶 6. 融点と沸点が低く、低温での反応に使われることが多いです。 また、DMFを取り除きたい時、ジエチルエーテルで抽出して水で2~3回洗浄すればDMFをほぼ取り除くことができます。 THFと同様に過酸化物を作りやすく、市販品にはBHTが少量含まれていることが多いです。 79 1 水への溶解度:混和する 1 水と混和し、有機化合物も溶かします。 加えて乾燥が早く、毒性も有機溶媒の中では比較的低いために、実験で使ったガラス器具の洗浄に使われます。 792 2 水への溶解度:混和する 1 最も単純なアルコールです。 加水分解反応の反応溶媒や、カラムクロマトグラフィーの極性溶媒として使われます。 カラム溶媒として使う場合は、例えば酢酸エチルに少量混ぜただけでも極性がかなり変化しますので注意しましょう。 ちなみに、N-ヘキサンとは完全に混合せず二層系を作ります。 79 3 水への溶解度:混和する 4 メタノールに炭素が一つついた化合物です。 有機合成だけでなく、お酒のアルコール分というのはこのエタノールです。 有機合成的には主に反応溶媒やカルボン酸のエチルエステル化などに使われます。 実験室にあるのは工業用エタノールだと思いますので、飲んではいけません。 902 2 水への溶解度:微溶 1 実験室で多用される有機溶媒です。 主にカラムクロマトグラフィーの展開溶媒や、分液時の抽出溶媒として使われます。 構造中にエステルを持つため、化学的安定性の面から反応溶媒として使われることはあまりありません。 87 1 水への溶解度:不溶 1 芳香族系の有機溶媒では、発がん性の認められているベンゼンに代わって、最もよく使われると思われる溶媒です。 そこそこ高い沸点を持ちますが、エバポレーターで除去できる程度なので使いやすい溶媒だと思います。 反応溶媒や再結晶溶媒としてよく使われます。 66 1 水への溶解度:不溶 0. 95 1 水への溶解度:混和する 1 非プロトン性の極性溶媒で、様々な有機化合物、無機化合物をよく溶かします。 基本的には反応溶媒として使われます。 沸点が高いのでエバポレーターで除去するのは困難ですが、反応溶媒としての性能としては代え難いものがあります。 反応溶媒だけでなく、ヴィルスマイヤー反応のホルミル化剤として使われるなど、溶媒以外の所でも使用されます。 10 1 水への溶解度:混和する 1 DMFと同じく非プロトン性の極性溶媒で、こちらも様々な有機化合物、無機化合物をよく溶かします。 DMFよりさらに沸点が高く、エバポレーターで除去するのは非常に困難です。 反応溶媒として主に使われますが、DMF共々どうやって除去するかを考えてから使った方が良いと思います。 化合物物性データ引用元 (1)東京化成工業株式会社SDS (2)三協化学株式会社SDS (3)キシダ化学SDS (4)職場のあんぜんサイト.

次の

JIS K 8322:2006 クロロホルム(試薬)

クロロホルム 比重

00(約1)、1000といった数値をよくみかけますが、これらの数値に続く単位が何なのかわかっていない方が意外と多く、以下で詳細を確認していきます。 なお、水は温度によってその密度や比重が変化していきますが、ここでは上述のよう代表的な数値となる4度付近の数値を元に記載しています。 水の密度は約1. これが水の密度の代表値ともいえるため、覚えておくようにしましょう。 なお、水といってもミネラルウォーター、水道水、純水、蒸留水などさまざまなものがありますが、基本的におおよその数値は同じと考えていいです。 なお、といえるため、水の密度は1. これらの単位どれでもで記載できることをきちんと認識しておくといいです。 000001m3を活用すると、1. 水の密度は 1. 結局は水の密度1. 水の比重は1【単位はなし】 なお、比重とは対象物質の密度と基準物質の密度との比であるため、単位はありません。 つまり、結局は自信と比較していることになるため、水の比重は数値1と記載できるのです。 どれもややこしいので、十分に注意していきましょう。 まとめ ここでは、水に関する密度や比重の数値と単位の関係について解説しました。 水における密度の各々の単位と数値の関係は、1. 一方で、水の比重はただの数値の1となり単位は無いことを覚えておくといいです。 単位変換になれ、各設計に役立てていきましょう。

次の

水の密度と比重のまとめ【g/cm3(g/ml、g/cc) 、kg/m3、kg/L、g/m3の表記】|白丸くん

クロロホルム 比重

CAS番号. 108-95-2 化学名: フェノール 别名: フェノール;4-ヒドロキシベンゼン;パオスクレー;石炭酸;グリヘノブルーMB;カルボ-ル;フェノール標準原液;フェノール 結晶 ;フェノール試薬;フェノール STANDARD;フェノール 破砕結晶 ;フェノール, 結晶;フェノール標準品;パンディ試薬;フェノール 溶液;液体フェノール;フェノール Standard, 2. 比重 密度 : 1. 蒸気密度: 3. 24 vs air 蒸気圧: 0. 071 PH: 3. 0-6. 5M in H2O 臭い Odor : Sweet, medicinal odor detectable at 0. 06 ppm 臭気閾値 Odor Threshold : 0. 0056ppm 爆発限界 explosive limit : 1. 3-9. P273 環境への放出を避けること。 次にコ ンタクトレンズを着用していて容易に外せる場合は外す こと。 その後も洗浄を続けること。 P310 ただちに医師に連絡すること。 フェノール 価格 メーカー 製品番号 製品説明 CAS番号 包装 価格 更新時間 購入 富士フイルム和光純薬株式会社 wako W01W0116-1736 フェノール 破砕結晶 99. 溶解性 水及びエタノールにやや溶けやすい。 エタノール及びジエチルエーテルに極めて溶けやすく、水にやや溶けやすい。 用途 消毒剤、歯科用麻酔剤、染料中間物原料 用途 DNA, RNAの抽出精製用。 用途 汎用試薬、試液調製原料、有機合成原料。 用途 たん白質分解時のアミノ酸保護剤。 用途 上水中等のフェノール類の試験用フェノール標準液調製用。 用途 フェノールは、ベンゼンから合成されるヒドロキシル基を持つ芳香族化合物で、フェノール樹脂の原料として、またエポキシ樹脂の原料であるビスフェノールAの合成に使用される他、各種化学薬品の原料として使用される。 フェノール樹脂の原料として、また、エポキシ樹脂の原料であるビスフェノールAの合成として使用される他、染料 界面活性剤 殺菌剤,農薬、医薬、その中間体等々、幅広い化学薬品の原料として使用される。 用途 汎用試薬、試液調製原料、有機合成原料、消毒薬。 用途 消毒剤、歯科用 局部麻酔剤 、ピクリン酸? サルチル酸? フェナセチン? 染料中間物の製造、合成樹脂及び可塑剤、合成香料、ビスフェノールA,アニリン、2,6-キシレノール、農薬、安定剤、界面活性剤の原料、化粧品原料 変性剤、消臭剤、防腐剤 用途 汎用試薬、調製液原料。 用途 薄層クロマトグラフィー、ペーパークロマトグラフィーの展開溶媒。 化粧品の成分用途 変性剤、剥離剤、防腐剤、抗菌剤、口腔衛生剤、殺菌剤、外用鎮痛剤、香料、消臭剤 効能 鎮痛薬, 口腔麻酔薬, 鎮痒薬, 殺菌消毒薬, 痔疾用薬 皮膚硬化薬 , 保存剤 特徴 フェノールは、ベンゼンから合成されるヒドロキシル基を持つ芳香族化合物で、室温では固体で、特有の薬品臭がある。 特長 和光特級品 167-01022, 161-01025 は溶融後固まった塊であるが、本品は小塊で、取り扱い、取出し、秤量に便利である。 主な用途/役割 溶剤型接着剤に使用される。 It is reactive and incompatible with strong oxidising agents, strong bases, strong acids, alkalis, and calcium hypochlorite. Phenol is flammable and may discolour in light. Phenol is used in the manufacture or production of explosives, fertiliser, coke, illuminating gas, lampblack, paints, paint removers, rubber, perfumes, asbestos goods, wood preservatives, synthetic resins, textiles, drugs, and pharmaceutical preparations. It is also extensively used as a disinfectant in the petroleum, leather, paper, soap, toy, tanning, dye, and agricultural industries. Phenol has a sharp burning taste,a distinctive odor, and it irritates tissue. It is toxic not only by ingestion or inhalation, but also by skin absorption. Phenol is soluble in water,alcohol,and ether. It is used in the production of resins,germicides,weedkillers,pharmaceuticals, and as a solvent in the refining of lubricating oils. It is reactive and incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong bases, strong acids, alkalis, and calcium hypochlorite. It is flammable and discolors in light. Phenol is used in the manufacture or production of explosives, fertilizer, coke, illuminating gas, lampblack, paints, paint removers, rubber, perfumes, asbestos goods, wood preservatives, synthetic resins, textiles, drugs, and pharmaceutical preparations. It is also used extensively as a disinfectant in the petroleum, leather, paper, soap, toy, tanning, dye, and agricultural industries. Phenol is a systemic poison and constitutes a serious health hazard. The risks of using it in the laboratory must be fully assessed before work begins. Typical MEL 2 ppm; typical OEL 1 ppm. 化学的特性 Phenol is a colorless to light-pink, crystalline solid. Sweet, acrid odor. The Odor Threshold in air is 0. 04 ppm and in water is 7. 9 ppm. 化学的特性 Phenol occurs as colorless to light pink, caustic, deliquescent needleshaped crystals or crystalline masses with a characteristic odor. When heated gently phenol melts to form a highly refractive liquid. The USP 32 permits the addition of a suitable stabilizer; the name and amount of substance used for this purpose must be clearly stated on the label. 化学的特性 Phenol has a strong odor that is sickeningly sweet and irritating. Phenol has powerful disinfectant and sanitizing qualities. It has been used as a topical anesthetic and antiseptic preservative, reagent and chemical reactant. Its use for direct addition to food is limited to a role as a flavoring ingredient in a few foods at a maximum level below 10 ppm. 物理的性質 Phenol is a colorless or white crystalline solid that is slightly soluble in water. Phenol is the simplest of the large group of organic chemicals known as phenols, which consist of compounds where a carbon in the phenyl aromatic group C6H5 is directly bonded to hydroxyl, OH. 天然物の起源 It is reported found in over 150 natural products including apricot, sour cherry, black currant, bilberry, cranberry, other berries, grapes, guava fruit, peach, pineapple, asparagus, onion, cooked potato, tomato, cinnamon bark, cassia leaf, ginger, pennyroyal oil, many cheeses, butter, milk, milk powder, boiled egg, fish and fish oil, cooked and cured meats, beer, wheaten bread, crisp bread, cognac, rose wine, cocoa, coffee, tea, whiskies, roasted filbert, roasted peanut, soybean, pecans, honey, avocado, Arctic bramble, passion fruit, beans, mushrooms, burley tobacco, cooked beef and chicken, fermented soy sauce, trassi, roasted almonds, sesame seed, fenugreek, mango, tamarind, Brazil nut, rice, rhubarb, licorice, buckwheat, watercress, malt, wort, dried bonito, loquat, myrtle berry, rosemary, Tahiti and Bourbon vanilla, endive, shrimp, crab, crayfish, clam, squid, truffle and Chinese quince. Throughout human history,infection often resulted in death,even when the wound could be surgically treated. A broken bone piercing the skin, which today is a painful but not life-threatening injury,historically resulted in infection and possible amputation or death. 使用 The predominant use of phenol today is for phenolic resins. it is a powerful bactericide,phenol can be found in numerous consumer products includingmouthwashes,antiseptic ointments,throat lozenges,air fresheners,eardrops,and lipbalms. Phenol continues to be a primary chemical used to make thermoset resins. These resinsare made by combining phenol with aldehydes such as formaldehyde. More than 4 billionpounds of phenolic resins are used annually in the United States. Phenolic resins findtheir widest use in the construction industry. They are used as binding agents and fillers inwood products such as plywood,particleboard,furniture, and paneling. Phenolic resins areimpregnated into paper,which,after hardening,produces sheets that can be glued togetherto form laminates for use in wall paneling and countertops. Decking in boats and docksare made from phenolic resin composites. Phenolic resins are used as sealing agents andfor insulation. Because phenolic resins have high heat resistance and are good insulators,they are used in cookware handles. Because they are also good electrical insulators,they areused in electrical switches,wall plates, and for various other electrical applications. In theautomotive industry,phenolic resins are used for parts such as drive pulleys,water pumphousings, brakes,and body parts. In addition to the construction industry,phenol has many other applications. It isused in pharmaceuticals,in herbicides and pesticides,and as a germicide in paints. It can beused to produce caprolactam,which is the monomer used in the production of nylon 6. Another important industrial compound produced from phenol is bisphenol A,which ismade from phenol and acetone. Bisphenol A is used in the manufacture of polycarbonateresins. Polycarbonate resins are manufactured into structural parts used in the manufactureof various products such as automobile parts,electrical products,and consumer appliances. Items such as compact discs, reading glasses,sunglasses,and water bottles are made frompolycarbonates. 使用 Phenol is used in the manufacture of variousphenolic resins; as an intermediate in the production of many dyes and pharmaceuticals;as a disinfectant for toilets, floors, and drains;as a topical antiseptic; and as a reagentin chemical analysis. It has been detectedin cigarette smoke and automobile exhaust. Smoke emitted from a burning mosquito coil a mosquito repellent has been found to con-tain submicron particles coated with phenoland other substances; a lengthy exposure canbe hazardous to health Liu et al. 1987. It may trap free radicals and can act as a preservative. Phenol, however, is an extremely caustic chemical with a toxicity potential. It is considered undesirable for use in cosmetics. even at low concentrations, it frequently causes skin irritation, swelling, and rashes. 使用 Purified for molecular genetics applications 定義 ChEBI: An organic hydroxy compound that consists of benzene bearing a single hydroxy substituent. The parent of the class of phenols. 製造方法 Phenol is formed in dry distillation of wood, peat and coal; coal tar is one of the commercial sources of phenol and its homologues. 適応症 Phenol in dilute solution 0. Phenol should never be used on pregnant women or infants younger than 6 months of age. 調製方法 Phenol was prepared before World War I through the distillation of coal tar. The firstsynthetic process involved the sulfonation of benzene followed by desulfonation with abase. The most common current method of phenol production is from the cumene hydroperoxiderearrangement process. In this process,benzene reacts with propylene to produce cumene. Cumene is oxidized to cumene hydroperoxide. When cumene hydroperoxide is treated withdilute sulfuric acid,it rearranges and splits into phenol and acetone. 調製方法 Historically, phenol was produced by the distillation of coal tar. 定義 1. carbolic acid, hydroxybenzene, C 6H 5OH A white crystalline solid used to make a variety of other organic compounds. A type of organic compound in which at least one hydroxyl group is bound directly to one of the carbon atoms of an aromatic ring. Phenols do not show the behavior typical of alcohols. In particular they are more acidic because of the electron-withdrawing effect of the aromatic ring. The preparation of phenol itself is by fusing the sodium salt of the sulfonic acid with sodium hydroxide: C 6H 5SO 2. Replacement of the hydroxyl group with a chlorine atom using phosphorus V chloride. Reaction with acyl halides to form esters of carboxylic acids. Reaction with haloalkanes under alkaline conditions to give mixed alkyl—aryl ethers. In addition phenol can undergo further substitution on the benzene ring. The hydroxyl group directs other substituents into the 2- and 4-positions. brand name 3p maid;Agre-gola;Anbesol;Apralan;Benamine;Carbolic acid;Cepastat;Chloraseptic dm;Derma cas;Ego psoryl;Egomycol;Epivetol;Fenicado;Hydroxybenzene;Izal germicide;Merastat;Monophenol;Pao sole;Pernomol;Phenylic acid;Poscle;Pregine;Protaphane hm insulin;Sarna;Sedaural;Vaopin. 世界保健機関(WHO) Phenol became widely used as an antiseptic following demonstration of its germicidal activity in 1867. It is an intensely corrosive substance and percutaneous absorption can produce serious systemic toxicity. It has been withdrawn from pharmaceutical preparations by at least one national regulatory authority. However, it is still used widely in concentrations of the order of 1. Aroma threshold values Detection: 5. 5 ppm. Aroma characteristics at 1. Taste threshold values Taste characteristics at 3 ppm: spicy, phenolic, tobacco, musty, woody, medicinal, smoky, tarlike and slightly spicy clovelike. Colorless if pure, otherwise pink or red. Density 9. Vapors are heavier than air Corrosive to the skin turning skin white but because of its anesthetic quality numbs rather than burn. Lethal amounts can be absorbed through the skin. Used to make plastics and adhesives. 空気と水の反応 Decomposes slowly in air. Soluble in water 反応プロフィール PHENOL is a weak acid. Reacts exothermically with bases. Reacts with strong oxidizing agents. Emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes when heated to decomposition. Undergoes, in the presence of aluminum chloride, potentially explosive reactions with nitromethane, butadiene, formaldehyde, peroxodisulfuric acid, peroxosulfuric acid, and sodium nitrite. Reacts violently with sodium nitrate in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid [Bretherick, 5th ed. , 1995, p. 770]. May corrode lead, aluminum and its alloys, certain plastics, and rubber. Phenol may explode in contact with peroxodisulfuric acid Dns, J. Ber. , 1910, 43, 1880; Z. Anorg. Chem. , 1911, 73, 1911. or peroxomonosulfuric acid. Ingestion of 1 gram has been lethal to humans. Lethal amounts may be absorbed through skin or inhaled. Industrial contact can cause chronic poisoning with kidney and liver damage. Persons affected with hepatic or kidney diseases are at a greater risk. 健康ハザード Exposures to phenol cause adverse health effects and poisoning. Phenol is absorbed very rapidly through surfaces of the skin, lungs, and stomach. The symptoms of prolonged exposures and poisoning include, but are not limited to, vomiting, diffi culty in swallowing, diarrhea, lack of appetite, headache, fainting, dizziness, mental disturbances, and skin rash. Direct contact with phenol causes burning of the mouth, irritation to the eyes, nose, and dermatitis, discoloration of the skin, and damage to the liver and kidneys. Exposure to phenol in different concentrations is known to cause mental disturbances, depression of the CNS, and coma. 健康ハザード Phenol is a corrosive and moderately toxic substance that affects the central nervous system and can cause damage to the liver and kidneys. Phenol is irritating to the skin but has a local anesthetic effect, so that no pain may be felt on initial contact. A whitening of the area of contact generally occurs, and later severe burns may develop. Phenol is rapidly absorbed through the skin, and toxic or even fatal amounts can be absorbed through relatively small areas. Exposure to phenol vapor can cause severe irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, and respiratory tract. Acute overexposure by any route may lead to nausea, vomiting, muscle weakness, and coma. Contact of phenol with the eyes may cause severe damage and possibly blindness. Ingestion of phenol leads to burning of the mouth and throat and rapid development of digestive disturbances and the systemic effects described above. As little as 1 g can be fatal to humans. Phenol is regarded as a substance with good warning properties. Chronic exposure to phenol may cause vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, difficulty in swallowing, headache, skin discoloration, and injury to the liver. Phenol has not been shown to be a carcinogen in humans. There is some evidence from animal studies that phenol may be a reproductive toxin. 健康ハザード Phenol is a corrosive substance with mod-erate to high toxicity. The acute poisoning effects are high in most animals. In humans,ingestion of 5—10 g of solid can cause death. The toxic symptoms include nausea, vomiting, weakness, muscular pain, dark urine,cyanosis, tremor, convulsions, and kidneyand liver damage. In addition, it is an irritant to the eyes, nose, and throat and cancause skin burn and dermatitis. Inhalation ofits vapors or absorption of the solid solutionor vapor through skin can produce similartoxic effects. Phenol vapors can readily beabsorbed through the skin. Absorption of phenol through intact skin,as determined from the blood phenol levelsin the test animals, depended on the surfacearea of applications rather than its concentrations in the test solutions Pullin 1978. Theanimals swines showed the signs of twitching and tremors within a few minutes ofapplications, which were followed by salivation, nasal discharge, and labored breathing. An 8-day exposure to7. Snails Indoplanorbis exustus secretedmucus and developed hemorrhage in a highlyconcentrated phenol environment. A 96-hourmedian lethal concentration was determinedas 125. Suppiah and Perry 2005 have reporteda case history of phenol-induced hepatitisin a male patient. The patient was admittedwith jaundice six days after phenol-injectionschlerotherapy for haemorrhoids. Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used to fight phenol fires. 火災危険 Flammable vapors when heated. Runoff from fire control water may give off poisonous gases and cause pollution. Decomposes slowly on air contact. Avoid contact with strong oxidizing agents. Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used to fight phenol fires. 応用例(製薬) Phenol is used mainly as an antimicrobial preservative in parenteral pharmaceutical products. It has also been used in topical pharmaceutical formulations and cosmetics; Phenol is widely used as an antiseptic, disinfectant, and therapeutic agent, although it should not be used to preserve preparations that are to be freeze-dried. 工業用途 Phenol is the simplest member of a class oforganic compounds possessing a hydroxylgroup attached to a benzene ring or to a morecomplex aromatic ring system. Also known as carbolic acid or monohydroxybenzene,phenol is a colorless to whitecrystalline material of sweet odor, having thecomposition C 6H 5OH, obtained from the distillationof coal tar and as a by-product ofcoke ovens. Phenol has broad biocidal properties, anddilute aqueous solutions have long been usedas an antiseptic. At higher concentrations itcauses severe skin burns; it is a violent systemicpoison. It is a valuable chemical raw materialfor the production of plastics, dyes, pharmaceuticals,syntans, and other products. Phenol is one of the most versatile industrialorganic chemicals. It is the starting point formany diverse products used in the home andindustry. A partial list includes nylon, epoxyresins, surface active agents, synthetic detergents,plasticizers, antioxidants, lube oil additives,phenolic resins with formaldehyde, furfural,and so on , cyclohexanol, adipic acid,polyurethanes, aspirin, dyes, wood preservatives,herbicides, drugs, fungicides, gasolineadditives, inhibitors, explosives, and pesticides. 安全性プロファイル Human poison by ingestion. An experimental poison by ingestion, subcutaneous, intravenous, parenteral, and intraperitoneal routes. Moderately toxic by skin contact. A severe eye and skin irritant. Questionable carcinogen with experimental carcinogenic and neoplastigenic data. Mutation data reported. An experimental teratogen. Absorption of phenolic solutions through the skin may be very rapid, and can cause death within 30 minutes to several hours by exposure of as little as 64 square inches of skin. Lesser exposures can cause damage to the ladneys, liver, pancreas, and spleen, and edema of the lungs. Ingestion can cause corrosion of the lips, mouth, throat, esophagus, and stomach, and gangrene. Ingestion of 1. 5 g has lulled. Chronic exposures can cause death from liver and kidney damage. Dermatitis resulting from contact with phenol or phenol-containing products is fairly common in industry. A common air contaminant. Combustible when exposed to heat, flame or oxidizers. Can react with oxidizing materials. To fight fire, use alcohol foam, CO2, dry chemical. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes. 安全性 Phenol is highly corrosive and toxic, the main effects being on the central nervous system. The lethal human oral dose is estimated to be 1 g for an adult. Phenol is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, skin, and mucous membranes, and is metabolized to phenylglucuronide and phenyl sulfate, which are excreted in the urine. Although there are a number of reports describing the toxic effects of phenol, these largely concern instances of accidental poisoning or adverse reactions during its use as a therapeutic agent. Adverse reactions associated with phenol used as a preservative are less likely owing to the smaller quantities that are used; however, it has been suggested that the body burden of phenol should not exceed 50 mg in a 10-hour period. This amount could be exceeded following administration of large volumes of phenolpreserved medicines. LD 50 mouse, IV : 0. Phenol also finds wide use as a disinfectant and veterinary drug. Carcinogenicity Phenol had been investigated for carcinogenicity in animals by the oral and dermal routes. IARC and IRIS determined that animal human evidence for carcinogenicity was inadequate. Source Detected in distilled water-soluble fractions of 87 octane unleaded gasoline 1. 2 fuel oil 0. , 2002. The aqueous phase was analyzed for organic compounds via U. EPA approved test method 625. A high-temperature coal tar contained phenol at an average concentration of 0. Phenol occurs naturally in many plants including blueberries 10 to 60 ppb , marjoram 1,431— 8,204 ppm , sweetflag, safflower buds 40 ppb , mud plantain, capillary wormwood, asparagus shoots, tea leaves, petitgrain, cinnamon, cassia, licorice, witch hazel, Japanese privet, St. A liquid swine manure sample collected from a waste storage basin contained phenol at a concentration of 22. , 1997. Schauer et al. 2001 measured organic compound emission rates for volatile organic compounds, gas-phase semi-volatile organic compounds, and particle phase organic compounds from the residential fireplace combustion of pine, oak, and eucalyptus. Releases toxic and noxious fumes when heated at temperatures greater than its boiling point. EPA, 2000. 環境運命予測 Biological. Under methanogenic conditions, inocula from a municipal sewage treatment plant digester degraded phenol to carbon dioxide and methane Young and Rivera, 1985. , 1990. In activated sludge, 41. , 1985. , 1981. Phenol is rapidly degraded in aerobically incubated soil but is much slower under anaerobic conditions Baker and Mayfield, 1980. Soil. Loehr and Matthews 1992 studied the degradation of phenol in different soils under aerobic conditions. In a slightly basic sandy loam 3. 1 and 23 d, respectively. Soil sorption distribution coefficients Kd were determined from centrifuge column tests using kaolinite as the absorbent Celorie et al. , 1989. Values for Kd ranged from 0. 010 to 0. Surface Water. Vaishnav and Babeu 1987 reported a half-life of 11 d in river waters and 3 d in harbor waters. Groundwater. Nielsen et al. 1996 studied the degradation of phenol in a shallow, glaciofluvial, unconfined sandy aquifer in Jutland, Denmark. As part of the in situ microcosm study, a cylinder that was open at the bottom and screened at the top was installed through a cased borehole approximately 5 m below grade. Five liters of water was aerated with atmospheric air to ensure aerobic conditions were maintained. Groundwater was analyzed weekly for approximately 3 months to determine phenol concentrations with time. The experimentally determined first-order biodegradation rate constant and corresponding half-life were 0. 4 h, respectively. Vaishnav and Babeu 1987 reported a biodegradation rate constant of 0. Photolytic. , 1979. Catechnol and hydroquinone were the major and minor products, respectively Niessen et al. , 1988. In an environmental chamber, nitrogen trioxide 10,000 ppb reacted quickly with phenol concentration 200 ppb to 1. 4 ppm to form phenoxy radicals and nitric acid Carter et al. , 1981. The phenoxy radicals may react with oxygen and nitrogen dioxide to form quinones and nitrohydroxy derivatives, respectively Nielsen et al. , 1983. 貯蔵 Because of its corrosivity and ability to penetrate the skin, all work with phenol and its solutions should be conducted while wearing impermeable gloves, appropriate protective clothing, and splash goggles. Operations with the potential to produce dusts or aerosols of phenol or its solutions should be carried out in a fume hood. 貯蔵 When exposed to air and light, phenol turns a red or brown color, the color being influenced by the presence of metallic impurities. Oxidizing agents also hasten the color change. Aqueous solutions of phenol are stable. Oily solutions for injection may be sterilized in hermetically sealed containers by dry heat. 輸送方法 UN1671 Phenol, solid, Hazard Class: 6. 1; Labels: 6. 1-Poisonous materials. UN2312 Molten phenol, Hazard Class: 6. 1; Labels: 6. 1-Poisonous materials. UN2821 Phenol solutions, Hazard Class: 6. 1; Labels: 6. 1-Poisonous materials. 純化方法 Steam is passed through a boiling solution containing 1mole of phenol and 1. 5-2. 0moles of NaOH in 5L of H2O until all non-acidic material has distilled. It is then fractionally crystallised several times from its melt [Andon et al. J Chem Soc 5246 1960]. Purification via the benzoate has been used by Berliner, Berliner and Nelidow [J Am Chem Soc 76 507 1954]. It is acidified with HCl and extracted with diethyl ether. The ether layer is freed from benzoic acid by thorough extraction with aqueous NaHCO3, and, after drying and removing the ether, the phenol is distilled. The crystals are centrifuged off, rinsed with cold water 0-2o , saturated with phenol, and dried. Processes such as this are probably adequate for analytical grade phenol which has as its main impurity water. The purified material is stored in a vacuum desiccator over P2O5 or CaSO4. [Beilstein 6 IV 531. ] 不和合性 Vapors may form explosive mixture with air. The aqueous solution is a weak acid. Incompatible with oxidizers chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc. ; contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids, epoxides, calcium hypochlorite; aluminum chloride. acids. Reacts with metals. 不和合性 Phenol undergoes a number of chemical reactions characteristic of alcohols; however, it possesses a tautomeric enol structure that is weakly acidic. It will form salts with sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide, but not with their carbonates or bicarbonates. Phenol is a reducing agent and is capable of reacting with ferric salts in neutral to acidic solutions to form a greenish-colored complex. Phenol decolorizes dilute iodine solutions, forming hydrogen iodide and iodophenol; stronger solutions of iodine react with phenol to form the insoluble 2,4,6-triiodophenol. Phenol is incompatible with albumin and gelatin as they are precipitated. It forms a liquid or soft mass when triturated with compounds such as camphor, menthol, thymol, acetaminophen, phenacetin, chloral hydrate, phenazone, ethyl aminobenzoate, methenamine, phenyl salicylate, resorcinol, terpin hydrate, sodium phosphate, or other eutectic formers. Phenol also softens cocoa butter in suppository mixtures. 廃棄物の処理 Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Incineration. 予防処置 Acute poisoning of phenol by ingestion, inhalation or skin contact may lead to death. Phenol is readily absorbed through the skin. It is highly toxic by inhalation. It is corrosive and causes burns and severe irritation effects. During use and handling of phenol, occupational workers should be very careful. Workers should use protective clothing, rubber boots, and goggles to protect the eyes from vapors and spillage. 規制状況 Regulatory Status Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database injections. Included in medicines licensed in the UK. Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients. フェノール 上流と下流の製品情報 原材料• 108-95-2• PHENOL, LIQUIDPHENOL, LIQUIDPHENOL, LIQUID• PHENOL, REAGENT ACS , LOOSE CRYSTALSPHENOL, REAGENT ACS , LOOSE CRYSTALSPHENOL, REAGENT ACS , LOOSE CRYSTALS• Phenol equilibrated, stablilized• Phenol water-saturated, stabilised and with separate Tris buffer solution• PHENOL LOOSE XTL• AKOS BBS-00004229• BIOPHENOL• BENZENOL• CARBOLIC ACID• CARBOLIC ACID SOLID• KJELDAHL PHENOL REAGENT• HYDROXYBENZENE• HYDROXY BENZENE SOLID• FEMA 3223• LIQUIFIED PHENOL• Phenol detached crystals• Phenol water saturated solution,DNase,RNase,Protease free,stab. Phenol, MB Grade 1. 07632• Phenol, Molecular Biology Grade• PHENOL ICE CRYSTAL HYDROXY BENZENE-PHENOL• PHENOL ICE CRYSTAL• PHENOL CRYSTAL• PHENOL CRYSTALS• PHENOL HYDROXY BENZEN C6H5OH• Phenol water saturated sol. , DNAse, RNAse, Protease free,stab. , free of oxides, for molecular biology• Phenol, loose crystals, unstabilized, extra pure, 99. フェノール• 4-ヒドロキシベンゼン• パオスクレー• 石炭酸• グリヘノブルーMB• カルボ-ル• フェノール標準原液• フェノール 結晶• フェノール試薬• フェノール STANDARD• フェノール 破砕結晶• フェノール, 結晶• フェノール標準品• パンディ試薬• フェノール 溶液• 液体フェノール• フェノール Standard, 2. フェノール Standard, 5. 消毒用フェノール• 液状フェノール• フェノール JP17• 消毒用フェノール JP17• 液状フェノール JP17• 農業殺菌剤• 殺菌薬• 外皮作用薬• 鎮痒剤• 痔疾薬.

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